Saturday, September 18, 2010


                                BRIEF ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABOUT NEPAL

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 84 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 147,181 sq km

land: 143,181 sq km

water: 4,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries: total: 2,926 km

border countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Terrain: Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m

highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Land use: arable land: 16.07%

permanent crops: 0.85%

other: 83.08% (2005)

Irrigated land: 11,700 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources: 210.2 cu km (1999)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): total: 10.18 cu km/yr (3%/1%/96%)

per capita: 375 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards: severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons

Environment - current issues: deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest - on the borders with China and India respectively


Population: 28,901,790 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.3% (male 5,721,720/female 5,360,391)

15-64 years: 57.9% (male 8,597,037/female 8,134,115)

65 years and over: 3.8% (male 528,113/female 560,414) (2007 est.)

Median age: total: 20.5 years

male: 20.3 years

female: 20.6 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.132% (2007 est.)

Birth rate: 30.46 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate: 9.14 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.067 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.057 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.942 male(s)/female

total population: 1.056 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 63.66 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 61.87 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 65.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.56 years

male: 60.78 years

female: 60.33 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.01 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)

adjective: Nepalese

Ethnic groups: Chhettri 15.5%, Brahman-Hill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%, unspecified 2.8% (2001 census)

Religions: Hindu 80.6%, Buddhist 10.7%, Muslim 4.2%, Kirant 3.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)

note: only official Hindu state in the world

Languages: Nepali 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5% (2001 census)

note: many in government and business also speak English (2001 est.)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 48.6%

male: 62.7%

female: 34.9% (2001 census)


Flag description: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

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Saturday, August 7, 2010

Going To Nepal

                                           Going To Nepal

Why is Nepal such a fascinating country for many people?

The Himalayan kingdom of Nepal is a land of scenic mountains, time-worn temples and some of the best walking trails on Earth. It's a small country, but it's rich in scenic splendour and exotic cultures. The people of Nepal are as diverse as their country and represent distinct cultures and races. Though they speak a variety of tongues and practice different religions, they are the friendliest people that you would ever meet.The kingdom has long exerted a pull on the Western imagination and it's a difficult place to dislodge from your memory once you return. So, wait until you're actually here in Nepal.

As a traveller, there are endless number of surprises Nepal has to offer you. Kathmandu Valley with its thousands of Hindu temples, Buddhist stupas, stunning architecture and rich pageantry can be quite beyond words. If you are careful enough not to get entangled in the superficial facade of a fastly "modernizing" capital city, Kathmandu probably offers you as exotic and urban experience as you can get.

Beyond Kathmandu, its another world altogether. Most travelers to Nepal want to check out the truly spectacular Himalayas along with the higher hills. A few go there to scale the high mountains, but many are nature lovers who trek along landscapes filled with deep valleys, lush forests, snow trails, terraced fields, and above all, the most hospitable people. See the FAQ on Trekking for more.

Travelers to Nepal also love making a safari trip to one of the National Parks in Nepal. The most popular one is the Chitwan National Park in the southern plains which hosts a diverse wildlife reserves including the rare Asian one-horn rhino.

How do I get to Nepal

In order to fly directly to Nepal from your home country, Tribhuvan International Airport (TIA) in Kathmandu is the only international airport in Nepal. TIA has direct airlink with Osaka, Shanghai, London, Frankfurt, Hongkong, Singapore, Bangkok, Delhi, Dubai, Bombay and Calcutta. Lufthansa, Royal Nepal Airlines (RNAC), Air India, Singapore Airlines, Thai are the airlines that carry most of the foreign travelers into Kathmandu; and if you buy tickets from any other airlines, you will probably connect with one of these airlines for the final leg of your flight.

Alternatively, if you have time and enthusiasm, traveling overland to Nepal via India is an option. British overland travel operators can take you from London to Kathmandu on a six to eighteen week trip for anywhere between $1200 to $ 2500 depending upon the nature of your trip. You will travel from continental Europe through Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India to Nepal. For specific details on traveling overland from India to Nepal, read below.

How much does airfare to Kathmandu cost?

Anyone who has done any traveling on air can tell you that one can never say for sure how much they cost. However, an economy class round trip ticket to Nepal from North America, should cost between $1400 to $1700 depending on what airline you fly and when. From western Europe, the fare should be about the same too. From most of East Asia, the cost is about $300 for one-way. If you are flying into Nepal from India or other South Asian cities, one-way fare would be between $100 to $200: Delhi ($150), Varanasi ($80), Bombay ($200), Calcutta ($100), Karachi ($150), Dhaka ($80). These figures are only estimates, and you should check with your travel agents for details.

Should I tag along with organized tours?

It's not a bad idea to tag along with organized tours though it can cost many times more than a self arranged trip. Nevertheless, since Kathmandu is a small city and can be explored easily without organized tour, I recommend people to do self-visit to different places in Kathmandu.

When is the best time to go to Nepal?

The weather is probably the best guide for deciding when to plan your trip to Nepal. October and November are considered the best times of the year. The monsoon will have just ended, and clear skies with optimal temperature will prevail. The main festivals of Dashain and Tihar (Hindu equivalent of Christmas in terms of festivity) fall during these months. However, this is also the busiest tourist season, and the main tourist centers and trekking trails tend to be crowded with travelers like you. The tourist flow ebbs a little, but not significantly, between the winter months of December and mid-February. It catches up once again between mid-February and mid-April. From mid-June to early October, it's the monsoon, during which time it rains almost everyday and most of the Himalayas are hidden behind the clouds. Check the weather section of this FAQ for more details on weather. In short, plan to visit Nepal between October and May, keeping in mind that October-November and February-March are the best times (but crowded with other travelers).

What are my options to come to Nepal from India?

You can fly between Delhi and Kathmandu for about $150 with RNAC or Air India. The actual flight time, not counting the endless delays and cancellations, is only a little more than an hour. However, note that Delhi-Kathmandu-Delhi flight is very busy and without proper reservations (or proper strings to pull) can be booked weeks in advance. Make your reservations and buy your ticket well in advance.

Alternatively, you can travel overland to Nepal from India. Buses are usually the quickest and easiest form of transport for this. There are three main crossing points: Sunauli-Bhairawa, Birganj-Raxaul and Kakarbhitta-Silguri. The Sunauli border crossing is the best one from Varanasi, the Birgunj crossing is the easiest from Calcutta; and Kakarbhitta is the best crossing from Darjeeling. These trip can be quite long and stressful, both in terms of time (it takes about two days and nights) and what you may go through during the trip (with tickets, safety, weather, border harassment etc). Not recommended for those people who want to have carefree travelling.

If you plan to enter Nepal in a car, make sure you have a carnet de passage en douanes. These are required to exempt you from customs duty for three months. You may also be required to pay a fee for each day that your car is in Nepal. As in India, in Nepal, vehicles are driven on the left side of the road

Culture and Heritage Sites

                                        Culture and Heritage Sites

The unified diversity of cultural heritages of Nepal could be tied to a garden with varieties of blooming flowers. Specially, the Kathmandu valley is a treasure trove of Nepalese culture protected and developed since a long, offering the unique attractions. The important side of the culture is its architectural heritage which is represented in the numerous monuments included and preserved within the seven monument zones in the Kathmandu Valley Heritage Site all within a radius of 20km. The valley is full of wonderful creations in various shapes and forms of art and architecture, extending to small stone or a bronze statue. The wood carvings of temples and houses are famous throughout the world. The beautiful temples, monasteries, stupas or Chaityas, shrines, palaces, monuments and every other architectural wonder of the valley are glorious cultural treasures of Nepal as well as a heritage of he whole of mankind. Nepalese architectural heritage is represented in the unique design of built structures like the pagoda, Shikhara-style temples and every other structure.


Swoyambhunath Stupa is one of the holiest Buddhist sites in Nepal and world’s greatest Buddhist Stupas, also known as Monkey Temple to the foreigner. It lies on the top of a hillock, 3 km west to the main city of Kathmandu and 77m above the level of valley. Painted on the four-sides of the spire bases, are the never sleeping eyes of Lord Buddha. The main structure of stupa is composed of a solid hemisphere of brick and earth supporting a lofty conical spire capped by a pinnacle of copper gild. This hill is a montage of small Chaityas and Pagodas temples.. It is regarded as the holiest Buddhist site in Nepal and equally respected by both Hindu and Buddhist. Its establishment is linked to the creation of the Kathmandu valley out of primordial Lake. Every year millions of monks come to visit it. UNESCO lists it in world heritage site.


Pashupatinath Temple is regarded as one of the most sacred Hindu shrines in the world, situated amidst a lush green natural setting on the bank of sacred Bagmati river, 5km east of central city of Kathmandu.. the temple, built in pagoda style has gilded roof and richly carved silver doors, is dedicated to Lord Shiva, god of death. The pashupatinath area is covered with ornamented pagoda houses highlighting the sacred linga, or phallic symbol, of Lord Shiva. The holy river, Bagmati flows through the east of Pashupati Nath temple. Every day, devotees are seen taking ritual dips in the holy Bagmati River. Entrance in the temple is strictly forbidden to all non-Hindus. Foreign and non-hindu visitors will be permitted to view the temple from the east bank of Rivers Bagmati.You will see the cremation grounds behind the temple at the bank of river. Chronicles indicate the temple’s existence prior to 400 AD. UNESCO publishes it as a world heritage site.


Boudhaanath is one of the holiest stupa in Buddhist power places in Nepal, constructed in first century and one of the biggest stupas in South Asia. It appears 36 meters high and presents one of the most mesmerizing specimens of Stupa design. The mandala design in Boudhanath is a copy of the one in Gyangtse in Tibet.. Thus it has been a center of Tibetan culture in Nepal. It is believed that its four pair of eyes in four cardinal directions, keeps watch for righteous behavior and human property. There are more than 45 Buddhist monasteries in the area. All day long, the devotees walk around the Stupa, moving and unforgettable scenes. A great influence from Tibet can be experienced here. Boudhanath is protected as a UNESCO world heritage site.

Kathmandu Durbar (Palace) Square:

The ancient Malla and Shah kings of Kathmandu built the palaces, courtyards, Kumari Ghar and Taleju temple between 12th and 18th centuries. This large square is the historic seat of Kingship in Nepal. An inscription of 17th century set into the wall of palace is written in 15 different languages. UNESCO protects it as a world heritage site which is the social, religious and urban focal point of the city. All the major state and social ceremonies, including the solemnization of coronations are performed in one of the courtyards even today. After paying an entrance fee of Rs. 250 to durbar square, you are permitted to visit the whole museum, managed within the palace.

Patan Durbar Square:

Patan is another historic city of Kathmandu valley and second largest town in the valley and about 5 kms far from central city of Kathmandu, believed to have been built during the reign of Vira Deva in 299 AD. The city is full of Hindu temples and Buddhist monuments with bronze gateways, guardian deities and wonderful carvings. The city is known as city of fine art as it is full or art. A two-story building with gilded roofs encloses the stone-paved courtyard of the palace square. The woodcarvings on the roof struts are especially attractive. The palace is prepared with sacred images and other small shrines. The museum in the courtyard is a collection of masterpiece of ancient arts and history to express the religious and cultural lives then in Nepal. This area is also protected as UNESCO world heritage site.

Bhaktapur Durbar Square:

Glance at Natural Beauties of Nepal

                      Glance at Natural Beauties of Nepal


Kathmandu is situated in a bowl shaped valley in central Nepal. The Kingdom extends about 885 km. east to west and 193 km. in width north to south. The entire terrain is like a steep incline, descending from the icy Himalayan Expedition_Regulation heights to the hot Terai flatland within a short distanc.

Historial Background:
The city of Kathmandu was built by king Gun Kamdev in 723 A.D. It is said that Kathmandu was a lake in the past and was made habitable by Manjushree, who cut open the hill to south Chovar) as to allow the water of lake to flow out.

It is said that Kathmandu city was named after "Kastha-Mandap" meaning the temple made of wood in Sanskrit , an imposing pagoda near Hanuman Dhoka Palace. It was built in 1596 out of a single tree by King Laxmi Narashingha Malla.

Kathmandu is the capital of the kingdom, situated in a valley which is an open air museum of famous sites, ancient temples and shrines, golden pagodas and are inspiring deities, is a city of inexhaustible historic artistic and cultural interest. Several beautiful and interesting villages and towns surrounding the valley offer ideal destinations for mini treks. The dazzling Himalayan peaks are visible from several points on the mountains around the valley.

The capital is quite up to date in terms of comfort and convenience boasting luxury hotels, bars, restaurants, shops and casinos. Transportation is convenient and inexpensive. Medical service is quite good. Shoppers may purchase unusual gifts and souvenirs from an interesting assortment of items such as handicrafts, carpets, wooden art works, bronze casting and metal work, thankas, Nepali paper prints and readymade garments. Places to see Kathmandu Durbar Square * Swoyambhu Nath Stupa * Boudha Nath Stupa * Pasupatinath Temple * Budhanilkantha

The ancient city of Patan, lying 5 km southeast of Kathmandu, is known as the city of fine arts. The city is full of Hindu temples and Buddhist monuments.The diversity of the medieval culture that allowed both Hinduism and Buddhism to flourish has left a rich legacy of impressive sightseeing in this city for today's visitors.

Historical Background:
Lalitpur (Patan) said to have been founded by King Veer Deva in 299 A.D. has many old names such as Yala, Yupagram, Lalitpatan, and Maningal. Several historical records plus many other legends, also indicate that Patan is the oldest of all three cities of Kathmandu Valley. Patan was founded by Kirab rulers long before the Lichhavi rulers came into the political scene in Kathmandu Valley. It must be remembered here that one of the most used and typical Newari name of Patan is Yala. It is said that King Yalamber named this city after himself and ever since then this ancient city was known as Yala.

Old Patan developed along two intersecting axes, which extended out to the four Ashokan stupas. The northern route, now pedestrianized, takes in Patan's Durbar Square and also the famed Golden and Kumbeshwar temples. Patan's western axis serves as the main way into town from Kathmandu. The busy southern road runs past the Machhendranath Mandir and the Lagankhel bus park, while the eastern road skirts the temple of Mahabuddha. The 'fibetan crafts centre of Jaulakhel is located at the southwestern edge of the city.

Getting to Patan has become a bit more civilized and less polluting since the introduction of the battery-powered Safaa Tempo ("Clean Tempo") service. the white three-wheelers run from Kathmandu's northern suburbs to Patan's Mangal Bazaar via the City Bus Park and Martyrs' Gate.

By bike, it shouldn't take more than half an hour. Coming over the main bridge from Kathmandu, you can enter the city via the Western Stupa or more directly via Patan Dhoka. Our private transfer will take about 15-20 minutes drive from your hotel to Patan.

Places to Visit:

Durbar Square * Krishna Mandir * Mahaboudha * Hiranya Verna Mahavihar * Kumbheshwor Jagatnarayan Temple * Rudra Varna Mahavihar * The Ashokan Stupas * Acchheswor Mahavihar Temple of Machhendranath and Minnath * The Zoo * Patan Industrial Estate * Bajra Barahi Godavari * Phulchowki

Bhaktapur- an ancient City

Situated at an altitude of 1,401 m, Bhaktapur covers an area of four square miles. Bhaktapur or "the City of Devotees" still retains the medieval charm and visitors to this ancient town are treated with myriad wonders of cultural and artistic achievements. The past glory of the Malla rulers continues to be reflected at the Durbar Square. Pottery and weaving are its traditional industries. The city lies about 14 km east of Kathmandu.

Historical Background:

The oldest part of the town is around Tachupal Tole (the Dattatraya Square), to the east. Bhaktapur was the capital city of the whole valley during the 14th to 16th centuries and during that time the focus of the town-shifted west, the Durbar Square area. Much of the town’s great architecture dates from the end of the 17th century during the rule of King Bhupatindra Malla. On Yaksha Malla’s death, the kingdom after a period of joint rule among his sons eventually became divided into three small kingdoms, Bhaktapur, Kathmandu and Patan.

Bhaktapur drapes across an east-west fold in the valley, its southern fringe sliding down towards the sluggish Hanumante River. Owing to a long-term westward drift, the city has two centres (residents of the two halves stage a boisterous tug- of-war during the city's annual Bisket festival} and three main squares. In the west, Durbar Square and Taumadhi Tol dominate the post-fifteenth-century city, while Tachapal Tol presides over the older east end.

You'll arrive by one of two routes. Our Private car/coach or local buses that leaves from Old Bus park Kathmandu every 10 minutes drops you on the main road about ten minutes' walk south of town. Arriving by minibus from the City Bus Park, you'11 be deposited near Sidha Pokhri, a five-minute walk west of Durbar Square. Local buses from Nagarkot terminate at Kamal Binayak, five minutes northeast of Tachapal; tourist buses from Nagarkot continue to the main intersection just north of Durbar Square.

Bhaktapur has no rikshaws and just a few resident taxis, but it's compact enough to be explored on foot one-speed bikes can be rented along the road east of minibus park (west of Durbar Square).

Places to see

Durbar Square * Taumadhi Square * The Nyatapola Temple * Dattatraya Square * Pottery Square


DHULIKHEL is justly famous as a well-preserved Newar town, mountain viewpoint, and hiking and biking hub, but its popularity is waning as road-building and modernization take their toll. Located 5km east of Banepa, just beyond the Kathmandu Valley rim, it sits in a saddle at the relatively low elevation of 1550m, which makes it warmer than Nagarkot. A number of resort hotels and guest houses are positioned along the highway to catch the best mountain views in the immediate vicinity, but the full vista can only be seen from a small summit above the town. Most visitors to Dhulikhel stay at least two nights, which allows time for a wander around the old town, a sunrise walk and a full-day circuit of the surrounding countryside and the cultural sites of Namobuddha and Panauti.

Unfortunately, the increasingly busy Arniko Highway passes just north of Dhulikhel and creates a less than idyllic barrier between most lodgings and the old town. On top of that, a major new highway to Sindhulimadi and the eastern Tarai is being built along the town's western and southern flanks. Donated by Japan, it's supposed to relieve pressure on the Prithvi (Pokhara) Highway by providing a second route into and out of the Kathmandu Valley, and its completion will turn Dhulikhel into one of Nepal's principal transport junctions, with all the revving and tooting that that entails. Meanwhile, a flurry of secondary road-building in the area has taken a lot of the pleasure out of the standard Namobuddha-Panauti itinerary, although the destinations themselves remain as worthy as ever. Looking on the bright side, the new roads make possible more and still largely untested mountain-biking possibilities.

Dhulikhel is less well-served by tourist buses than is Nagarkot. Local buses (every half-hour from Kathmandu's City Bus Park or from Bhaktapur's trolley bus stop; Rs15) are exasperatingly slow. You can ask to be dropped off at any of the hotels along the highway, but for most of the cheap lodgings you'll want to stay on until the small bus park. On a bike, it's better to come one of the back ways - via Lubhu-Panauti, Bhaktapur-Nala or Nagarkot-Nala.


Nagarkot, located 32 kilometers east of Kathmandu, is one of the most scenic spots in Bhaktapur district and is renowned for its spectacular sunrise view of the Himalaya when the weather is clear. Visitors often travel to Nagarkot from Kathmandu to spend the night so that they can be there for the breathtaking sunrise. Nagarkot has become famous as one of the best spots to view Mount Everest as well as other snow-topped peaks of the Himalayan range of eastern Nepal. It also offers an excellent view of the Indrawati river valley to the east. With an elevation of 2,195 meters, Nagarkot also offers a panoramic view of the Valley and is described by visitors as a place whose beauty endures year round.

Many visitors prefer to visit Nagarkot in the spring when surrounding valleys break out in a rich kaleidoscope of different coloured flowers. The flowers are beautiful against the serene backdrop of the snow-covered mountains. Ever popular among the tourists are the short treks and picnics which Nagarkot offers. Treks from Nagarkot are unique and delightful. For anyone who wants to have an adventure without exerting much effort, a hike to Nagarkot's surrounding areas would be a good option. One can traverse short distances on trekking trails and come close to nature's wonders such as the outer of verdant forests, flower-covered meadows and unusual rock formations.


For a country known for its beautiful mountains, the Gangetic flat lands of the Terai that stretches through out the southern part of Nepal provide a wholly different experience. A visit to Nepal remains incomplete without seeing the beauty of the Terai.

And Chitwan is the best place to do so. The Royal Chitwan National Park, established in 1973, provides a great wildlife experience with its rich flora and fauna. The wildlife and the landscape are not as breathtaking as those found in Africa but still, the experience will stand out.

Chitwan is only 150m above the sea level. The place gets steamy from March-June, with peak temperatures reaching 43°C in the shade. Short grass makes Feb-May the best game-viewing season, but the autumn months are gorgeous, with Himalayan views, and in winter (December-January), Chitwan is pleasantly warmed compared to Kathmandu. The monsoon season (July-August) is intense, with pounding rain, swollen rivers, and luxuriant vegetation. While the rain isn't constant, the humidity is all pervasive.

Places Of Interest

Though one can visit neighboring Tharu villages in Chitwan, the major interesting focus of Chitwan is still the exploration of the Chitwan National Park.

Flora and Fauna

The flora and fauna of Chitwan make it a great place for nature lovers. Chitwan has over 50 different species of mammals, 400 different species of birds, and 65 different types of butterflies in its hardwood Sal forests, riverine vegetation, and "elephant grass" savannah. More than 70 different species of grass grow here.

The most famous wildlife in Chitwan is perhaps the single-horned Asian rhinoceros. A few decades ago, their number had fallen to less than 100, but recent count puts them at 400. These animals have thick armor like hide that is hard to penetrate even with a bullet.

A fully grown animal can be as tall as 180cm. In spite of army protection for these animals and severe punishment for harming them, rhino poaching is still a problem as every organ of the animal carries some (probably superstitious) value. The horn fetches about US$10,000 per kilo and is believed to be an aphrodisiac. The dung can be a laxative; the urine cures tuberculosis and asthma. The blood can help cure menstrual problems. The hide keeps away evil spirits. And so on.

Chitwan has about 150 Bengal tigers left of the one time 3000 or so. Though poaching is a serious threat, the real threat for these majestic animals is the gradual loss of its habitat. A male tiger requires almost 60km space, and a female one requires a third of it. Chitwan is simply not big enough to handle many tigers. It is rare for one to actually see a tiger, though looking for one is an interesting part of the trip.

Other wild mammals one may see are leopards, various types of deer, monkeys, sloth bear, and antelope.

lumbini- The Birth Place of Buddha

Lumbini - a place in the South-Western Terai of Nepal, evokes a kind of holy sentiment to the millions of Buddhists all over the world-as do the Jerusalem to Christians and Mecca to Muslims. Lumbini is the place Lord Buddha -the apostle of peace and the light of Asia was born in 623 B. C., Located in the flat plains of south-Western Nepal and the foothills of Churia range, Lumbini and its surrounding area is endowed with a rich natural setting of domesticable fauna and favourable agricultural environ. Historically, the region is an exquisite treasure-trove of ancient ruisn and antiquities, dating back to pre-Christian era. The site, described as a beautiful garden in the Buddha’s time still retains its legendary charm and beauty. To the mere 12 miles north of Lumbini lies the dense and picturesque sal-grove. For centuries, Buddhists- all over the world, knew that Lumbini where the Lord was born is somewhere around. The descriptions of famous Chinese pilgrims (of ancient times) Huian Tsang and Faeihan indicated to this area-saying ‘Lumbini-where the lord was born is a piece of heaven on earth and one could see the snowy mountains amidst a splendid garden-embedded with stupas and monasteries!

Places to Visit inside Lumbini Garden

The Ashoka Pillar * Puskarni-the sacred pool * Sanctum-Sanctorum of the Birthplace

* Image of Maya Devi * The Buddhist Temple

Places around Lumbini

Kapilvastu * Tilaurakot * Gotihawa * Kudan * Niglihawa * Lumbini Development Project


Gorkha is a scenic hill- town with great historical significance.

King Prithvi Narayan Shah, who unified the kingdom of Nepal during eighteenth century, was born in the township of Gorkha. Situated on a small hillock at an attitude of about 1000 m, Gorkha offers panoramic view of snow-fed mountain.

Then the small kingdom of Gorkha, founded by king Drabya Shah in 1560 A. D. became famous during the dynasty of Ram Shah (1604-1641 A.D.), who earned the reputation of being just to his people. There was a famous proverb in those days which said that one should go to Gorkha if he were looking for justice.

In the middle of eighteenth century there were hundreds of small kingdoms and principalities in what is today's Nepal. The great Prithvi Narayan Shah took the mammoth task of unifying Nepal in the eighteenth century. The Gorkha soldiers under his dynamic leadership eventually succeeded in conquering the Kathmandu valley. The capital of greater Nepal was shifted to Kathmandu since then. But this beautiful township has always remained as the center of attraction for many Nepalese as well as foreign visitors.

Places to Visit

Gorkha Durbar * Gorkha Bazaar * Gorakhnath Cave * Manakamana

Pokhara-The city of Lakes

If Kathmandu is the cultural hub of Nepal, Pokhara is its center of adventure. An enchanting city nestled in a tranquil valley; it is the starting point for many of Nepal's most popular trekking and rafting destinations. The atmosphere on the Shore of Phewa Lake is one of excited vitality as hipster backpackers crowd the many bars and restaurants exchanging recommendations on guest houses and viewpoints, both by the lake and above the clouds.

Pokhara is a place of remarkable natural beauty. The serenity of Phewa Lake and the magnificence of the fish-tailed summit of Machhapuchhre (6,977 m) rising behind it create an ambience of peace and magic. At an elevation lower than Kathmandu, it has a much more tropical feel to it, a fact well appreciated by the beautiful diversity of flowers which prosper in its environs. Indeed, the valley surrounding Pokhara is home to thick forests, gushing rivers, emerald lakes, and of course, the world famous views of the Himalaya.

Pokhara is part of a once vibrant trade route extending between India and Tibet. To this day, mule trains can be seen camped on the out-skirts of the town, bringing goods to trade from remote regions of the Himalaya. This is the land of the Magars and Gurungs, hardworking farmers and valorous warriors who have earned worldwide fame as Gurkha soldiers. The Thakalis, another important ethnic group here, are known for their entrepreneurship.

Pokhara is located roughly 200 km west of Kathmandu.

The journey between these two famed cities is certainly part of the Pokhara experience. Flying over the snow-capped Himalaya to the north and green Mahabharat range to the south is thrilling, while the overland journey past sparse rural settlements nested along the Trisuli River provides a view of life particular to Nepal's middle hills.

There are daily several flights between Kathmandu and Pokhara.

Places to see

Mountain Views * Phewa Lake * Barahi Temple * Seti River * Devi's Fall * Mahendra Cave * The Old Bazaar * The Pokhara Museum * The Annapurna Regional Museum


Janakpur , 165km east of Birgunj, is indisputably the Tarai's most fascinating city. Also known as Janakpurdham (dham denoting a sacred place), it's a holy site of the first order, and its central temple, the ornate Janaki Mandir, is an obligatory stop on the Hindu pilgrimage circuit.
Although Indian in every respect except politically, the city is, by Indian standards, small and manageable: motorized traffic is all but banned from the centre, tourist hustle is largely absent, the poverty isn't oppressive, and the surrounding countryside is delightful. To top it all, Janakpur's railway, the only one still operating in Nepal, makes an entertaining excursion in itself. There's so much going on, both in and around Janakpur, that it's worth setting aside a few days to absorb it all - though bear in mind that there are no tourist-style lodgings, restaurants or other facilities.

Hindu mythology identifies Janakpur as the capital of the ancient kingdom of Mithila, which controlled a large part of northern India between the tenth and third centuries BC. The city features prominently in the Ramayan, for it was in Janakpur that Ram - the god Vishnu in mortal form - wed Sita , daughter of the Mithila King Janak. Recounting the divine couple's later separation and heroic reunion, the Ramayan holds Ram and Sita up as models of the virtuous husband and chaste wife; in Janakpur, where the two command almost cult status, the chant of "Sita Ram, Sita Ram" is repeated like a Hindu Hail Mary, and sadhus commonly wear the tuning-fork-shaped tika of Vishnu. Mithila came under the control of the Mauryan empire around the third century BC, then languished for two millennia until Guru Ramananda, the seventeenth-century founder of the sect of Sita that dominates Janakpur, revived the city as a major religious centre.

Despite the absence of ancient monuments to confirm its mythic past - no building is much more than a century old - Janakpur remains a strangely attractive city. Religious fervour seems to lend an aura to everything; the skyline leaves a lasting impression of palm trees and the onion domes and pyramid roofs of local shrines. Most of these distinctively shaped buildings are associated with kuti - self-contained pilgrimage centres and hostels for sadhus - some five hundred of which are scattered throughout the Janakpur area. Janakpur's other distinguishing feature is its dozens of sacred ponds ( sagar or sar), which here take the place of river ghats for ritual bathing and dhobi -ing. Clearly man-made, the roughly rectangular tanks might, as locals claim, go back to Ram's day, although it's more likely that they've been dredged over the centuries by wealthy merit-seekers.

Janakpur is a long haul from Kathmandu - eleven hours by bus- and only a couple of services ply the route during the daytime. The rest are night buses. The new Dhulikhel-Sindhuli Highway (completion in 2001 or 2002) is expected to bring the travel time down to eight or nine hours, making Janakpur a lot more accessible. In the meantime, your only other options are to break the journey in Hetauda or Birganj (the latter is better for getting a seat on to Janakpur) or fly. Necon Air and Royal Nepal both fly from Kathmandu to Janakpur ($55), Necon's service being the more reliable.


Daman has some of the most fantastic views of the Himalaya. It has a great view of the mountains from Dhaulagiri to Mt Everest. Daman is halfwaay between Kathmandu and Hetauda. It is definitely a worth visiting.

Daman is situated 80 kilometers south- west of Kathmandu at an altitude of about 2400 meters. Daman is located on the Tribhuvan Highway in between Kathmandu and the town to Birgunj. For the view of the Breath taking grandeur of the world's highest peaks extending in one glittering are from far-east of Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) there is no better place than Daman. There is a view tower fitted with long range telescopes. Daman can be reached in four hours from Kathmandu because of mountain highway. However it is worth visiting the area after watching the landscape of the Himalayas with having luxurious accommodation and cuisine of International standard there if one wishes to stay overnight.


Several hotels, resorts and tea houses are available to stay and enjoy the delicious cuisine.

Travel to Daman:

Daman by car is about three hours from Kathmandu and four hours from Hetauda. It makes a nice day trip from Kathmandu to come here by car for the day.

Namche Bazaar

Namche Bazaar is a village in the Khumbu region of Nepal. Namche is located at 3,440 metres (11,286 ft.) (the low point that is), populating the sides of a hill. From the bridge over the Dudh Kosi, the trail winds its way up a "big" hill, finally cresting at a small building which also serves as an army/police check point.

Almost everyone trekking in the Khumbu region will visit Namche Bazaar, as it is the gateway to the high Himalayas. Visitors are likely stay at least one night, if not two for altitude acclimatization. The village has many shops and lodges where one can find almost anything required for trekking (no camera repair shops), although prices are higher than in Kathmandu. However, the higher you go up into the Khumbu, the more expensive everything gets so by the time you reach Lobuche (4,930m/16,175'), the prices in Namche will seem quite reasonable.

Above Namche BazaarNamche is the administrative center for the Khumbu region so there are many Nepalese officials, a police check post and a bank. Near the top of the village is the headquarters for Sagarmatha National Park as well as Nepalese army barracks.

Immediately west of Namche is Kongde Ri at 6,187 metres (20,298 ft.) and to the east is Thamserku at 6,608 metres (21,680 ft.).

On a hill overlooking Namche Bazaar is the Shyangboche Airstrip (3,750m / 12,303ft). This is not generally used as it's surface is made of loose pebbles and therefore unsuitable for fixed wing aircraft, but it enables visitors to reach Namche Bazaar by air.

Many trekkers get up before sunrise and walk up to the Sagarmatha National Park Headquarters to take in the impressive views of Mount Everest, Lhotse, Thamserku, Ama Dablam (6,856m/22,493') and other magnificent peaks (though these can only be seen on a clear day) and visit the museum. Pictures of peaks to the west from this vantage point such as Kongde Ri, cannot be taken as the army barracks are between you and these mountains. The army does not permit pictures to be taken of the barracks. Because of the proximity of the army barracks, the Sagarmatha National Park Headquarters is surrounded by a large amount of barbed wire.

A good acclimatisation walk from Namche Bazaar goes to Everest View Hotel, which it at altitude of 3,800m / 12,467ft. As the name suggests, the hotel gives good views of Everest (when it is not enveloped in cloud) and this is generally considered the best view in the surrounding area. Everest View Hotel is a luxury hotel, which has had mixed success. Although the rooms are oxygenated, many guests have become sick. The hotel does however have the only decent restaurant, serving western food, in the region.

Namche Bazaar has two internet cafés, making it the only place in the region where trekkers can access the internet. Both internet cafés connect via satellites and so the resulting connection speed is slow.

The village also contains a German bakery, well known in the region for providing good quality western food, including pizza.


One of Nepal's most famous religious places of pilgrimage is Gosainkunda lake situated at an altitude of about 4360m. Surrounded by high mountains on the north and east, this lake is grand and picturesque. There are other nine famous lakes such as Saraswati, Bhairav, Sourya and Ganesh Kunda. Every year during Janai Purnima in August, thousands of Hindu pilgrims come here to lake holy bathe in the lake. The large rock in the center of the lake is said to be the remains of a Shiva shrine and it is also claimed that channel carries water from the lake directly to the tank at the Kumbheshwar Temple in Patan, 60 km to the south.


The best approach to Gosainkunda is through Dhunche, 132 kilometers north-east of Kathmandu. Dhunche is linked with Kathmandu by a motorable road. The trekking to Gosainkunda from Dhunche takes two days.

Accommodation: Several tea-houses and tourist inns offer lodging and meals.


Nestled at the foot of these Himalayan ranges is a beautiful, secluded, valley filled with nature is bounty of the Langtang National Park. Here the rare red pandas lurk in dense lichen-draped rhododendron Transfer interrupted!

The alpine meadows and lammergeiers glide over glaciated valleys amidst scenery of lofty Himalayan peaks. From Kyanjin Gompa we will have a chance to climb a ridge on Yala Peak, or hike to the foot of Langshisa glacier, for an incredible view of glaciers, icefalls and snowfields surrounded on all sides by high mountains. The Helambu villages, over the holy Gosainkunda lakes and Laurebenayak pass, are the home of the Sherpas of Nepal. Their slate and single-roofed villages, that dot the terraced hillsides, present very fine trekking. The region of Langtang and Helambu although easily approached from Kathmandu is far less trekked than the Annapurna or Everest areas making it all the more attractive. It is a wonderful walk through a naturalist's trail, moderate to rigorous trekking and lodging between 2003m and 4,380m with one pass crossing of 4,610m.

Namo Buddha

Better know by Tibetans as Tag-mo Lu-jin. This means the place where the Buddha offered his body to the hungry mother tigress. It is renowned for Shakyamuni's act of compassion upon encountering a hungry mother tigress he offered her his body so that she could feed her cubs. There are a couple monasteries and one ancient stupa erected nearby in which one can make offerings, pray, and light butter lamps. This sight can be reached in a couple hours by jeep or for those who prefer a half-day hike it gives beautiful views of the local villages and lush scenery.

Famous Festivals of Nepal

                                              Major Festivals of Nepal

                    Nepal is not only the land of mountains; it is also the land of festivals. There are more than 50 festivals celebrated in Nepal every year. While the national festivals have fixed dates, religious festivals are set by astrologers following the lunar calendar. The best part about the festivals in Nepal is that all the events are celebrated with the same enthusiasm and galore the way it used to be hundreds of years ago when people had no other means of entertainment.

New Year: It is known as “Navavarsha” in Nepal. Nepal has its official calendar that begins from the first day of the first month Baisakh. This very first day is observed as Nepali New Year which usually falls in the second week of April. People go for picnics, have get-togethers and celebrate the day socializing in various ways as this day is also a national holiday.

Lhosar (Tibetan New Year): This is the New Year of the Tibetans and Sherpas of Nepal which falls in February. The Buddhist monasteries in Kathmandu like Boudhanath and Swayambhunath are decorated with eye catching colorful prayer flags pulling the crowd. The people perform their traditional dances and welcome their New Year with feasts and family gatherings wearing all the new clothes and finest jewelries and exchanging gifts.

Saraswati Puja: Saraswati Puja or Shree Panchami is a day to celebrate the birthday of Saraswati – the Goddess of Learning. This is a day when people from school students to scholars worship their pens and books to please the Goddess and expect her favor in their studies so they become wise and knowledgeable. People also throng around the idol of Goddess Saraswati, especially in Swayambhunath and offer flowers, sweets, fruits, etc. On this day, small children are taught to read and write and people write on the stones and slabs with chalks and pencils. This day which falls between January/February is regarded as a very auspicious day for marriages too as it is believed that Goddess Saraswati herself blesses the couples. Normally it is the astrologers who fix the marriage date and time in Nepal.

Shivaratri (Maha Shivaratri): Shivaratri or the night of Lord Shiva that falls sometime between February/March is one of the major festivals of Nepal. This day is dedicated to the Lord of the Lords – Lord Shiva or Mahadev who lived in Mt. Kailash in the Himalayas. Lord Shiva is the most worshipped God in the Hindu religion. More than 100,000 of Hindu devotees from India and Southeast Asia throng weeks ahead of the festival and gather in and around Pashupatinath temple – one of the holiest shrines of the Hindus in Kathmandu to pay their homage to Lord Shiva on his birthday. “Pashupatinath” literally means “the Lord of animals” as Lord Shiva is considered as the guardian and protector of everything that exists in the Himalayan Kingdom. On this holy day, worshippers take dip and bath in the holy river at early dawn and fast for the whole day and stay around fire to keep them warm as it is still winter in Nepal. The devotees also freely indulge in using marijuana and other intoxicating substances as these things are believed to please Lord Shiva and marijuana use is legal only on this sacred day. More ...

Holi: This festival of water and colors that falls between February/March is also known as “Phagu” in Nepal. This day is observed to rejoice the extermination of female demon Holika who together with her King brother conspired to kill his son Pralhad, an ardent devotee of Lord Vishnu. This day, playful people especially the young ones wander through the streets in groups on foot or vehicles with various colors smeared all over them and the people in houses make merry throwing colors and water balloons at each other and also to these people on the streets.

Ghode Jatra (Festival of Horses): This festival takes place between March/April and a grand horse parade takes place at Tundikhel. Although this festival does not have much of religious aspects, a large number of people, even from outside Kathmandu flock around Kathmandu to witness the horse race and other exciting sports activities performed by the Army in the presence of the King and the Royal family.

Buddha Jayanti: Buddha’s birth anniversary is celebrated every year during May in Nepal. On this day people swarm in Swayambhunath and Boudhanath to pay homage to Lord Buddha and also visit Buddha’s birth place in Lumbini and chant prayers and burn butter lamps. Lord Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha Gautam but he abandoned his luxurious life when he realized the misery of mankind and went in search of enlightenment.

Gai Jatra (Cow Festival): This festival of cow is celebrated every year in August/September. This is one of the most popular festivals in Nepal as it is full of humor, satire, comedy, mockery and shades of sadness too at the same time. And on this day satires and jokes on anybody is legal. As per the tradition, the family who has lost a relative during the past one year must take part in a procession by sending young boys in cow like attire and walk through the streets of Kathmandu lead by a cow. Cow is regarded as a Goddess and it is also the national animal of Nepal. This festival also purges many who have lost their loved ones as they get to console themselves as to they are not the only ones who have been bereaved and it also teaches to accept death as a part of life.

Krishna Janmastami: The birth anniversary of Lord Sri Krishna, believed to be the 8th incarnation of Lord Vishnu falls sometime in August/September. All the devotees assemble in Krishna Mandir, the ancient Krishna Temple in Patan Durbar Square and other temples with the idol of Sri Krishna and offer prayers, flowers, food, sweets and chant hymns too.

Teej: This is a Hindu married woman’s day for her man. This festival is celebrated in August/September. Women clad in beautiful red saris with shining potes (glass beads), singing and dancing is the sight almost everywhere in Nepal during the festival of Teej. On this day women observe a fast and pray Lord Shiva for the long, healthy and prosperous life of their husbands and their families. The unmarried women also observe this festival with unabated zeal with the hope that they will get to marry good husbands. From early dawn, women queue up in the multiple lines in Pashupatinath to offer their prayers to Lord Shiva.

Indra Jatra: This festival named after Lord Indra- the God of Rain and also the King of Heaven is celebrated by both the Buddhists and Hindus in Nepal in August/September. This festival lasts for eight days with singing, mask dancing and rejoicing. The chariot of Kumari – the Living Goddess is taken through the main streets of Kathmandu with much fanfare. On the first day, the King of Nepal also pays homage to Goddess Kumari. The crowd of excited people from performers to spectators engulfs the streets of Kathmandu during this festival. People get to enjoy various classical dances like elephant dance, lakhe – a very popular dance of a man with a mask.

Tihar: This festival of lights that falls between October/November is the second biggest festival after Dashain. This festival lasts for five days and people worship Laxmi – the Goddess of Wealth. All the houses are cleaned and decorated with the belief that Goddess Laxmi will enter the house that is the cleanest and people lit candles, oil lamps and other lights and the whole place looks illuminating. During the five days, crows, dogs and cows are worshipped and honored with vermilion, garland and delicious food for what they have done in the lives of humans. Crows are regarded as the messenger that brought news even during the times when there were no postmen and no postal services. Dogs are the most obedient animals and they guard our house as true guardians. Cow is also a symbol of wealth in Hinduism and she is also the national animal of Nepal. During Tihar, the Newari community in Nepal also observes Mha puja – a ritual of worshipping one’s own body and life. On this very day, the Newari New Year which is also known as Nepal Sambat begins. The festival ends with Bhai Tika – brothers’ day when his sisters worship him for his long and healthy life to safeguard the lives of his sisters. This is also a gambling time in Nepal as gambling is not illegal during this festival.

Dashain (Bijaya Dashami): During the month of Kartik (late September and early October), the Nepalese people indulge in the biggest festival of the year, Dashain. Dashain is the longest and the most auspicious festival in the Nepalese annual calendar, celebrated by Nepalese of all caste and creed throughout the country. The fifteen days of celebration occurs during the bright lunar fortnight ending on the day of the full moon. Thorough out the kingdom of Nepal the goddess Durga in all her manifestations are worshiped with innumerable pujas, abundant offerings and thousands of animal sacrifices for the ritual holy bathing, thus drenching the goddess for days in blood.

Friday, August 6, 2010

People & Religion of Nepal

                                         People of Nepal

                             Nepal is the museum of the human races or even said as the anthropological pilgrimage. The population of the country is 23 million with the density of 156.27 per square kilometres as the National Census 2001 A.D. roughly the majority of the peoples are the Indo-Aryans and the remainder is of Mongoloid origin. The peoples in the Himalayan are called Tibet-Mongoloid by races and Tibetan-Buddhist by religion. They speak Tibetan language and their own dialects. Their life is based on the Trans- Himalayan trade and Cis- Himalayan trade.

Because of the poor economy and the prevalent system in their society some of them are forced to practice the polyandry system. It was believed that the people called the Sherpas of the North East Nepal were the migrants of the eastern Tibet. In the mid-hill region the peoples are living with agriculture. Newars are the main ethnic group of Kathmandu. Magars, Gurungs, Rai and Limbus form the warrior class and are famous throughout the world as Brave Ghurkhas. Terai had been poorly inhabited for long time because of the fear of so-called disease Malaria .It was covered with the dense forests for many years and now mass deforestation has made this region better place to live. During the course of time people from mid-hills started migrating to this region as they found the land there rich enough for cultivation.

                                          Religion of Nepal

                                 Nepal is regarded as the only Hindu Kingdom. Officially, large  number of the population is believed as the followers of Hinduism. It is believed as the oldest religion and guided by the oral tradition for long time. For Hindus Himalayas has been described in the Epics as the playground of the Gods and Goddesses. They believe in the numbers of Gods and Goddesses. Sacrifice of the animal is interesting feature of the Hindu practice. They think that they should make the ferocious God and Goddess happy with the sacrifice of the animals.

They have lots of different aspects and faiths that their lives generally guiding so they all the time try to be close with the gods and goddess. Second place in the country is occupied by Buddhism. It is dominant in the northern side of the country. It was founded some 2600 yrs back by the lord Buddha who was Prince of the southern part of the present Nepal. To get rid from the sufferings from this world was the key concern for him, who then set to achieve the solution, had meditated and Enlightened .He became the Buddha and then started to preach about his achievement as four noble truth to get rid from the suffering .The goal of the life in Buddhism is to get Nirvana or the state of supreme bliss. In the southern part there is some number of the Islam.

The practices of Animism and Shamanism are another type of practice which is very rare with the modern attack in the society .Now the increasing numbers of the Christianity belief shows its influence upon Nepalese. In fact Hinduism and Buddhism exist side by side along with others and showing the perfect harmony of the religious practices.

Nepal Fauna and Flora

                               Nepal Fauna and Flora

Ranging from the subtropical forests of the Terai to the great peaks of the Himalayas in the north, Nepal abounds with some of the most spectacular sceneries in the whole of Asia, with a variety of fauna and flora also unparalleled elsewhere in the region. Between Nepal's geographical extremes, one may find every vegetational type, from the treeless steppes of the Trans-Himalayan region in the extreme north and the birch, silver fir, larch and hemlock of the higher valleys to the oak, pine and rhododendron of the intermediate altitudes and the great sal and sissau forests of the south.

The rolling densely forested hills and broad Dun valleys of the Terai along with other parts of the country, were formerly, renowned for their abundance and variety of wildlife. Though somewhat depleted as a result of agricultural settlements, deforestation, poaching and other causes, Nepal can still boast richer and more varied flora and fauna than any other area in Asia. For practical purposes, Nepal's flora and fauna can be divided into four regions:-

1. Tropical Deciduous Monsoon Forest :

This includes the Terai plains and the broad flat valleys or Duns found between successive hill ranges. The dominant tree species of this area are Sal (Shorea Robusta), sometimes associated with Semal (Bombax malabricum), Asna (Terminalia termentosa), Dalbergia spp and other species, and Pinus rosburghi occurring on the higher ridges of the Churia hills, which in places reach an altitude of 1800m. Tall coarse two-meter high elephant grass originally covered much of the Dun valleys but has now been largely replaced by agricultural settlements. The pipal (ficus religiosa) and the Ôbanyan' (ficus bengalensis) are to be noticed with their specific natural characteristics. This tropical zone is Nepal's richest area for wildlife, with gaurs, buffaloes, four species of deer, tigers, leopards and other animals found in the forest areas rhinoceros, swamp deer and hot deer found in the valley grasslands and two species of crocodile and the Gangetic dolphin inhabiting the rivers. The principal birds are the peacock, jungle fowl and black partridge, while migratory duck and geese swarm on the ponds and lakes and big rivers of Terai. Terai forests are full of jasmin, minosa, accecia reeds and bamboo.

2. Subtropical Mixed Evergreen Forest :

This includes the Mahabharat Lekh, which rises to a height of about 2400m and comprises the outer wall of the Himalayan range. Great rivers such as the Karnali, Narayani, and Sapta Koshi flow through this area into the broad plains of the Terai. This zone also includes the so-called middle hills which extend northwards in a somewhat confused maze of ridges and valleys to the foot of the great Himalayas. Among the tree species characteristic of this region are Castenopsis indica in association with Schima wallichii, and other species such as Alnus nepalensis, Acer oblongum and various species of oak and rhododendron which cover the higher slopes where deforestation has not yet taken place. Orchids clothe the stems of trees and gigantic climbers smother their heads. The variety and abundance of the flora and fauna increase progressively with decreasing altitude and increasing luxurance of the vegetation. This zone is generally poor in wildlife. The only mammals, which are at all widely distributed, are wild boar, barking deer, serow, ghoral and bears. Different varieties of birds are also found in this zone. Different varieties of birds are also found in this zone.

3. Temperate Evergreen Forest :

Northward, on the lower slopes and spurs of the great Himalayas, oaks and pines are the dominant species up to an altitude of about 2400m above which are found dense conifer forests including Picea, Tusga, Larix and Abies spp. The latter is usually confined to higher elevations with Betula typically marking the upper limit of the tree line. At about 3600 to 3900m, rhododendron, bamboo and maples are commonly associated with the coniferous zone. Composition of he forest varies considerably with coniferous predominating in the west and eracaceous in the east. The wildlife of this region includes the Himalayan bear, serow, ghoral, barking deer and wildboar, with Himalayan tahr sometimes being seen on steep rocky faces above 2400m. The red panda is among the more interesting of the mammals found in this zone; it appears to be fairly distributed in suitable areas of the forest above 1800m. The rich and varied avifauna of this region includes several spectacular and beautiful pheasants, including the Danfe pheasant, Nepal's national bird.

4. Subalpine and Alpine Zone :

Above the tree line, rhododendron, juniper scrub and other procumbent woody vegetation may extend to about 4200m where it is then succeeded by t a tundra-like association of short grasses, sedge mosses and alpine plants wherever there is sufficient soil. This continues up to the lower limit of perpetual snow and ice at about 5100m. The mammalian faun is sparse and unlikely to include any species other than Himalayan marmots, mouse hare, tahr, musk deer, snow leopard and occasionally blue sheep. In former times, the wild Yak and great Tibetan sheep could also be sighted in this region and it is possible that a few may still be surviving in areas such as Dolpa and Humla. The bird life at such as lammergeyer, snowcock, snowpatridge, choughs and bunting, with redstarts and dippers often seen along the streams and rivulets. Yaks are the only livestock, which thrive at high altitude. They serve both back and draught animals. The cheeses prepared out of the milk are edible for months. The female Yak provides milk to the Sherpas.

Of the wonderful flora and fauna must suffice to indicate what a paradise Nepal is to the lovers of wild animal and bird life, to the naturalists and to the foresters.